National Peace Essay 2013-14 Topic and Question

Security Sector Reform, Political Transition, and Sustainable Peace Study Guide United States Institute of Peace

Establishing law and order after conflict / Seth G. Jones … [et al.]

ContentsIntroduction — A theory of reconstructing internal security — Kosovo — Afghanistan — Iraq — Measuring success — Conclusion
SummaryIn a nation-building operation, outside states invest much of their resources in establishing and maintaining the host country’s police, internal security forces, and justice system. This book examines post-Cold War reconstruction efforts, such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan, and assesses the success of U.S. and allied efforts in reconstructing internal security institutions

The Politics of Security
Sector Reform in Egypt

Entry-points to Palestinian Security Sector Reform
Roland Friedrich, Arnold Luethold
DCAF, Jan 1, 2007 – Gaza Strip – 186 pages

Security sector reform is at the top of the Palestinian reform agenda. Palestinians want effective and accountable security forces that respond to their security needs. For them, security sector reform is also necessary to advance Palestinian state-building. However, many political organizations and socio-economic challenges make change slow and difficult. Donors sometimes seek to influence the reform process in a direction that serves their own interests and overlooks Palestinian needs. This book gives a voice to the Palestinians, the intended beneficiaries of security sector reform. Palestinian security experts and practitioners propose concrete changes in the legal framework, the structure of the security forces, the mechanisms for oversight and accountability, and the management of armed groups. By highlighting various entry-points for security sector reform, this collection of Palestinian perspectives is a contribution to a better understanding of Palestinian needs and of the dire

Monopoly of Force
The Nexus of DDR and SSR
Edited by Melanne A. Civic and Michael Miklaucic
With a Foreword by
General James N. Mattis, USMC

“New from NDU Press for the Center for Complex Operations, Institute for National Strategic Studies. The loss by many states of the monopoly of the legitimate use of force has contributed significantly to the proliferation of failed and failing states worldwide. In such states, a multitude of threats, including insurgencies, terrorist networks, transnational organized crime, and illicit shadow economies, flourish. These states often become trapped in cycles of violent conflict that threaten stability and security at home, in their neighborhoods, and throughout the world. States emerging from conflict are highly prone to return to conflict within the first few years of postconflict status. The widespread availability of lethal weapons exacerbates the tensions that already permeate conflict and postconflict environments. The mechanism of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) is widely acknowledged to be an essential component of successful peacekeeping, peace-building, postconflict management, and state-building. Security sector reform (SSR) has emerged as a promising though poorly understood tool for consolidating stability and establishing sovereignty after conflict. While DDR enables a state to recover the monopoly (or at least the preponderance) of force, SSR provides the opportunity for the state to establish the legitimacy of that monopoly. The essays in this book reflect the diversity of experience in DDR and SSR in various contexts. Despite the considerable experience acquired by the international community, the critical interrelationship between DDR and SSR and the ability to use these mechanisms with consistent success remain less than optimally developed. DDR and SSR are essential tools of modern statecraft, but their successful use is contingent upon our understanding of both the affinities and the tensions between them. These essays aim to excite further thought on how these two processes–DDR and SSR–can be implemented effectively and complimentary to better accomplish the shared goals of viable states and enduring peace.”–Publisher’s website.

Sarah Meharg
Aleisha Arnusch
Susan Merrill
January 2010

Brief Synopsis

The authors explore the definition of SSR as it has emerged in the international community. The makeup of the security sector is examined, emergent principles are identified for implementing SSR in the community of practice, and the outcomes that SSR is designed to produce are specified. The supporting case studies of Haiti, Liberia, and Kosovo assess the impact of SSR programs on host nation security sectors. The authors conclude that those conducting SSR programs must understand and continually revisit the policy goals of SSR programs so as to develop concepts that support a transitional process that moves forward over time. Intermediate objectives required in support of this transition also articulate what is good enough and fair enough at various stages in the transformational process. State actors must acknowledge and often accommodate nonstate security actors more effectively in SSR planning and implementation, while recognizing both the advantages and the risks of collaborating with such actors. The authors also identify a need for rebalancing resources committed to SSR, especially given that justice and civil law enforcement typically are badly under-resourced as elements of SSR programs. Finally, the authors note the need for more flexible and better integrated funding processes to support SSR activities within the U.S. Government.